A Guide to the seven royal houses of life on earth
The system of classifying life on earth using binomial nomenclature, is not a perfect system. It starts with the study of Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, and ends with Genus and Species as the two categories we use to classify and categorize life. Many scientists consider there to be Five Kingdoms, or Queendoms. Here, I call them Royal Houses and discuss Seven of them, five Eukaryotic houses and two Prokaryotic houses. As of 2015, and the Publication of “A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms” by Ruggiero et al. seven kingdoms are now recognized.
Today we start with the foundation of all life The first distinction is important to get right The Progenitor comes first, primordial code Floating freestyle in the cytoplasm strings and nodes Next comes the shall we say, Eu characteristic host The Eukaryotic cellular host with the most Organelles and a nucleus are the prime discerning fact Mitochondrial DNA encapsulated, traces all the way back
Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus, mitochondria or any other membrane bound organelles. (One exception is blood cells, but they do not live very long).
Prokaryotes that do not photosynthesize
Prokaryotes that do photosynthesize
Eukaryotes have a separate membrane bound nucleus, numerous mitochondria and organelles.
Unicellular, Do not photosynthesize
Unicellular, chlorophyl C sometimes lost. For more on this newer classification of organisms, see this link https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00709-017-1147-3
One to many cells, no photosynthesis
Multicellular, no photosynthesis
Multicellular, Chlorophyll A B and C
3-4 Billion years ago, only the archaic Archaea and their photosynthesizing cousins, Bacteria had emerged form the spiraling code surrounded by life giving water. For 1.5 Billion -2 Billion years there were only these basic building blocks. Then 1.5 billion years ago protozoa are on the go. Then Chromista split off 1.2 million years ago. 1 Billion years ago, after 3 billion years of single cell organization into organelles, the first multicellular living structure emerged as Fungi. Now here’s where it gets interesting. You may think that Animalia are more evolved than plants, but according to science animals evolved 700 million years ago and Plantae evolved most recently only 500 million years ago. This fact and others contribute to the very interesting truth that most scientists today regard Fungi as closer relatives of animals than plants.
Origin and Differences in the multicellular organisms
The three multicellular Eukaryotic Royal Houses, and the Chromista, as best we can decipher, all emerged from protozoa and relationships between protozoa. The following table shows the primary differences in the three multicellular Eukaryotic groups. Each of these groups has some members who can also reproduce asexually.
|Reproduction||Gametes or Spores||Gametes||Spores|
|Mitosis||Open||Open||Open or Closed|
|Cellular differentiation||In whole organism||In whole organism||Only for fruiting bodies|
|Haploid cells vs Diploid cells||Diploid||Diploid||Haploid|
The classification system used for all life gives us only the Genus and Species. For each of the Royal Houses, called Kingdoms, there are further subdivisions as follows Phylum, Class, Genus, Order, Species.