QNDM / KNGDM of Life

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A Guide to the seven royal houses of life on earth

The system of classifying life on earth using binomial nomenclature, is not a perfect system. It starts with the study of Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, and ends with Genus and Species as the two categories we use to classify and categorize life. Many scientists consider there to be Five Kingdoms, or Queendoms. Here, I call them Royal Houses and discuss Seven of them, five Eukaryotic houses and two Prokaryotic houses. As of 2015, and the Publication of “A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms” by Ruggiero et al. seven kingdoms are now recognized.

Today we start with the foundation of all life
The first distinction is important to get right
The Progenitor comes first, primordial code
Floating freestyle in the cytoplasm strings and nodes
Next comes the shall we say, Eu characteristic host 
The Eukaryotic cellular host with the most
Organelles and a nucleus are the prime discerning fact
Mitochondrial DNA encapsulated, traces all the way back


Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus, mitochondria or any other membrane bound organelles. (One exception is blood cells, but they do not live very long).

1. Archaea

Prokaryotes that do not photosynthesize

2. Bacteria

Prokaryotes that do photosynthesize


Eukaryotes have a separate membrane bound nucleus, numerous mitochondria and organelles.

3. Protozoa

Unicellular, Do not photosynthesize

4. Chromista

Unicellular, chlorophyl C sometimes lost. For more on this newer classification of organisms, see this link https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00709-017-1147-3

5. Fungi

One to many cells, no photosynthesis

6. Animalia

Multicellular, no photosynthesis

7. Plantae

Multicellular, Chlorophyll A B and C


3-4 Billion years ago, only the archaic Archaea and their photosynthesizing cousins, Bacteria had emerged form the spiraling code surrounded by life giving water. For 1.5 Billion -2 Billion years there were only these basic building blocks. Then 1.5 billion years ago protozoa are on the go. Then Chromista split off 1.2 million years ago. 1 Billion years ago, after 3 billion years of single cell organization into organelles, the first multicellular living structure emerged as Fungi. Now here’s where it gets interesting. You may think that Animalia are more evolved than plants, but according to science animals evolved 700 million years ago and Plantae evolved most recently only 500 million years ago. This fact and others contribute to the very interesting truth that most scientists today regard Fungi as closer relatives of animals than plants.

Origin and Differences in the multicellular organisms

The three multicellular Eukaryotic Royal Houses, and the Chromista, as best we can decipher, all emerged from protozoa and relationships between protozoa. The following table shows the primary differences in the three multicellular Eukaryotic groups. Each of these groups has some members who can also reproduce asexually.

Characteristic Plantae Animalia Fungi
Cell WallCelluloseAbsentChitin
ReproductionGametes or SporesGametesSpores
MitosisOpenOpenOpen or Closed
Cellular differentiationIn whole organismIn whole organismOnly for fruiting bodies
Haploid cells vs Diploid cellsDiploidDiploidHaploid
Food AquisitionAutotrophicHeterotrophicHeterotrophic
Food StorageStarchGlycogenGlycogen
MobileNoYes (mostly)No

Binomial Nomenclature

The classification system used for all life gives us only the Genus and Species. For each of the Royal Houses, called Kingdoms, there are further subdivisions as follows Phylum, Class, Genus, Order, Species.

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